Physics-informed data reconciliation framework for real-time electricity and emissions tracking


To encourage and guide decarbonization efforts, better tools are needed to monitor real-time electricity system emissions from electricity consumption, production, imports, and exports. Using real-time electric system operating data is especially challenging for applications that require these data to be of high quality and physically consistent. Until now, time-intensive, ad-hoc and manual data verification strategies are used to prepare the data for quantitative analysis. As an alternative to existing techniques, this work introduces a physics-informed framework to greatly accelerate and automate such procedures and enable the availability of internally consistent electric system operating data available in real-time, for the benefit of policy makers, private sector actors and researchers. A key component of this framework is an optimization program to minimize the data adjustments required to satisfy energy conservation equations. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated by applying it to an example data set for the continental United States electricity network; emissions for electricity consumption, production and exchanges are also computed. The method that was developed in this work was implemented in a software system that updates this data set hourly. The resulting publicly-available real-time data set on electricity generation, consumption, imports, exports and associated emissions is the first data set of this nature.

Applied Energy